In virtually all nations and jurisdictions, all land made up of mining earnings e pendre opportunity (“Tenements”) is reserved and legally retained by the government of that jurisdiction. Mining companies are generally granted licenses or leases which stipulate sure circumstances in return for a proper to mine and exploit these Tenements. Governments often retain lawful title more than these Tenements so as to assure a appropriate to foreseeable future royalties (‘Mining Royalties”) from the licensed corporations which will often surpass the sale price of the Tenements.

It is common for firms to obtain or hold licenses to mine Tenements having said that do not have the assets to conduct the exploration, appraisal and exploitation of these Tenements. A Farm In / Farm Out Agreement is a particular sort of joint undertaking arrangement which permits an entity certified to mine the Tenements (“Farmor”) to enter into an agreement with a 3rd social gathering (“Farmee”) to pool their methods collectively to exploit the Tenements.

The expression “Farming In” applies to the Farmee, who is “farming in” or “entering into” to the job. Whilst the time period “Farming Out” applies to the Farmor who is effectively “farming out” or “licensing out” its legal rights to the Tenements to a 3rd party.

In a Farm In / Farm Out Settlement, typically the Farmor will license a part of its rights to the Tenements and or give a percentage of the return from the exploitation of the Tenements to the Farmee who will typically offer thought and/ or undertakings to conduct is effective on the Tenements pursuant to the phrases of the Farm In / Farm Out Arrangement.

Distinctive Constructions of Farm In / Farm Out Agreements:

Share Acquisitions:

A Farm In / Farm Out joint enterprise agreement may be structured as a partial share acquisition by the Farmee of the Farmor Organization. This approach of structuring a joint undertaking is usually the most uncomplicated. This system demands a joint undertaking to be an included joint undertaking and the Farmor, will then be the incorporated joint undertaking.

In purchase to maintain separation of the entities as is the typical regulation need of a joint undertaking, the events will commonly execute a shareholder’s agreement which will ascertain each individual get-togethers contributions, liabilities, profit sharing provisions and rights and obligations.

We advise that the Farmee get careful thing to consider of the Farmor’s instances i.e. no matter whether the Farmor is a shown enterprise. Relying on the Farmor’s situations and the applicable corporation’s legal guidelines in the pertinent jurisdiction, the Farmee may possibly be moving into into a venture with onerous regulatory demands.

Trade of Property:

An trade of property is typical in a Farm In / Farm Out arrangement when the Farmee may well not have adequate cash to satisfy prerequisites stipulated by the Farmor. In concept an exchange of assets is a reasonably easy transaction, nonetheless we strongly endorse that the property to be exchanged are meticulously viewed as for their professional benefit prior to moving into into the transaction.

Assignment of Legal rights:

The most straight forward way for a Farmee to get the curiosity held by a Farmor over Tenements is via an Assignment or Licensing Agreement. In outcome, the Farmor will grant the Farmee a license to mine the Tenements and obtain a proportion of the return. This arrangement will stipulate the contributions, liabilities, revenue sharing and obligations of the functions.

Rewards, Disadvantages and Criteria of Farm In and Farm Out Agreements

Farm In / Farm Out joint venture agreements have distinct authorized features. Prior to getting into into a Farm In / Farm Out agreement, it is critical to look at the pros and shortcomings of coming into into this sort of an arrangement. Prior to moving into into any agreement, we strongly recommend that a extensive due diligence is conducted on the Tenements and opportunity joint venture companion (for the Farmee) and/ or the possible joint undertaking spouse (for the Farmor) to guarantee the security and certainty of just about every parties’ lawful placement the moment the settlement has been entered into.

It is critical for events to any transaction to contemplate their potential legal and commercial posture. Any celebration to a Farm In / Farm Out settlement must look for clarity and certainty of their authorized obligations and commercial place prior to entering to any arrangement. By taking into account the following concerns, a social gathering may perhaps include the applicable contractual protections and choose the important safeguards to be certain that the venture will be productive:


A Farm In/ Farm Out Settlement may possibly offer a Farmor with the adhering to strengths and negatives:


  1. Sharing Means: The means to receive resources necessary to exploit the Tenements.
  2. To be ready to satisfy needed timelines: typically mining leases of licenses will expire if the license holder (“Tenement Holder”) fails to conduct exploration will work in a stipulated total of time.
  3. Spreading legal responsibility: any legal responsibility is distribute among the functions to the joint undertaking.


  1. Shared Command: The Farmor will usually have to relinquish some variety of handle to the Farmee as aspect of the joint enterprise arrangement.
  2. Division of Interests: the Farmor will commonly have to divide its pursuits in the returns from the Tenements with the Farmee.
  3. Assignment of Suitable to Tenements: the Farmor will generally have to assign its legal rights to specified of all the Tenements to the Farmee so that the Farmee is ready to perform the exploration or exploitation is effective, as the circumstance may perhaps be.


A Farm In / Farm Out Settlement may offer a Farmee with the next rewards and disadvantages:


  1. Obtain to Tenements: Tenements are not normally quickly granted. By moving into into a Farm In / Farm Out Settlement with a Farmor, s Farmee will obtain a license to mine Tenements.
  2. Possibility: There is no ensure that Tenements granted by the Govt comprise any exploitable resources. A Farmee may reduce chance and exploration charges if it enters into a Farm In / Farm Out Settlement with a Farmor in possession of Tenements which have now experienced exploration will work carried out on it.
  3. Profits: In consideration for the functions performed by the Farmee, the Farmor will commonly share with the Farmee a share of the return gained from exploiting the Tenements.

Down sides:

  1. Money Needs: the Farmee ought to be ready to pay out the thought selling price to the Farmor pursuant to the agreement (if any) and also meet its obligations to perform the performs on the Tenements. This may perhaps involve a substantial funds as it ordinarily the situation that the Farmor has a more robust bargaining placement as they maintain the license to the Tenements.
  2. Demanding Contractual Obligations: The Farmee will commonly be certain to rigid obligations to the Farmor for the exploitation of the Tenements.

Essential Concerns:

We advocate that the pursuing issues be considered meticulously prior to getting into into a Farm In / Farm Out agreement:

  1. The commerciality of the conditions of the joint enterprise
  2. Regardless of whether the obligations are much too onerous
  3. No matter if there is adequate money to comply with the obligations of the arrangement and
  4. Regardless of whether there are adequate rewards in entering into the joint enterprise settlement.

The higher than concerns are simplified. In any transaction there will be distinct concerns arising from the conditions which are exclusive to the transaction.